Day 1 :
Lakehead University, Canada
Keynote: Sustainable production of bioenergy and value-added products for the growing low-cost bioresource economy
Time : 09:00-09:25
Dr. Lew Christopher holds a Masters degree in Chemical Engineering, Ph.D. degree in Biotechnology, and has more than 20 years of industrial and academic experience. Currently he serves as Director of the Biorefining Research Institute at Lakehead University. His research mission is to add value to the emerging Bioeconomy by applying an integrated biorefinery approach to the development of renewable energy technologies. Dr. Christopher is member of the editorial board of several international biotechnology journals, advisory boards, and professional societies. He has made over 400 scientific contributions to the field of bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass.
The global trend for production of bioenergy and bioproducts from renewable resources is currently steered by three important drivers: 1) diminishing reserves of readily recoverable oil and fluctuating oil prices; 2) growing food and energy needs; and 3) increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The global production of plant biomass, over 90% of which is lignocellulose, is about 2 x 1011 tons per year, with up to 2 x 1010 tons of the primary biomass remaining potentially accessible and available for bioprocessing. Current estimates indicate that the global energy demand will continue to increase and reach 653 exajoules (EJ) in 2020) and 812 EJ in 2035. At a price of $107 per oil barrel, the cost of the lignocellulosic feedstock (US $2.6/GJ at $50/dry ton biomass) is lower than natural gas ($3.3/GJ) and crude oil ($17.2/GJ). However, at the current low oil prices, the cost of lignocellulose conversion ($20/GJ) exceeds nearly twice that of fossil fuels, which necessitates further optimization of the biomass conversion routes. Lignocellulosic biorefineries are the ultimate integrated biomass conversion facilities that are nowadays viewed as one of the major economic pillars of the emerging global Bioeconomy. However, less than 10% of thel global fuels and chemicals production is currently biobased. This is mainly due to the fact that bioproducts are not yet cost-competitive to their petroleum-based counterparts. As the biomass feedstock comprises about 50% on average of the total production costs, it has now been recognized that low-value biomass and biomass waste streams can provide a cost-effective alternative to improve the economic viability of biorefineries. Among other, this approach offers two major advantages: 1) significantly lower bienergy production costs; 2) significantly reduce waste treatment costs, carbon footprint and GHG emissions. This presentation will discuss opportunities for valorization of industrial, agricultural and municipal biomass waste and related technological challenges that we need to overcome in our transition to a low-cost bioresource economy and biobased society.
1. Christopher LP (2013) Integrated Forest Biorefineries: Challenges and Opportunities. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK (ISBN978-184973-321-2).
2. Christopher LP (2012) Adding value prior to pulping: Bioproducts from hemicellulose. In: Global Perspectives on Sustainable Forest Management, InTech, Chapter 14, pp. 225-246.
3. Christopher LP, Hemanathan K, Zambare VP (2014) Enzymatic biodiesel: Opportunities and challenges. Appl Energy 119: 497-520.
4. Talluri S, Raj SM, Christopher LP (2013) Consolidated bioprocessing of untreated switchgrass to hydrogen by the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903. Bioresour Technol 139: 272-279.
5. Upadhyaya B, DeVeaux LC, Christopher LP (2014) Metabolic engineering as a tool for enhanced lactic acid production. Trends Biotechnol 32: 637–644.
University of Guelph, Canada
Time : 09:25-09:50
Animesh Dutta is a Professor and Director of Bio-renewable Innovation Lab, and Associate Director, Graduate studies with the School of Engineering at the University of Guelph. Dr Dutta is specialized in advanced energy systems and thermo-fluid science with hands-on experience in reactor design and pilot plant operation, design and performance of various tests in laboratory scale and pilot scale units, thermal design and process development. In his career, he has published over 75 peer-reviewed journal papers, 3 book chapters, and has roughly 85 conference publications and reports.
The three major challenges in the 21st century are food security, climate change and energy sustainability. Bioenergy is one promising renewable energy source with low net CO2 emissions and potentially sustainable if the economical, environmental and social impacts are properly managed. The development of clean and economically viable biomass conversion technologies for a domestic market is thus imperative to promote the local utilization of biomass residues in Canada. Recently Ontario Government of Canada passed the waste free Ontario, 2016 act which is the Resource Recovery and Circular Economy act (Bill 151, 2016). In the “Circular Economy act” resource recovery, and waste reduction strategy will create opportunities and markets of recovered resources. This will minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental impacts in the strategy of “Waste-Free Ontario”. In this research a hybrid thermochemical and biochemical approach is proposed to produce biocoal, biomethene and biofertilizer from corn residue (CR) using the concept of circular economy. In this approach, CR is first pretreated in hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process to produce solid biocoal. HTC process water (HTPW), a co-product of HTC processing underwent fast digestion under anaerobic conditions (AD) to produce biomethene and biofertilizer. Effects of operating conditions (process temperature and residence time) on both bio-coal and HTPW contents were studied. This process produced hybrid bioenergy of 15.71 MJ kg-1 of raw CR with an overall energy yield of 86.65%. Biocarbon produced in 240C for 30 min and 260C for 10 to 30 min were comparable to pulverised coal used in power plants, which contained HHVs of 23.01 MJkg-1 to 24.70 MJkg-1. Nutrient enriched AD digestate is useable as liquid fertilizer. Biocoal, biomethene and bio-fertilizer produced at 240C for 30 min HT process can contribute to the circular economy enrichment and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in Ontario.
Jiangsu University, China
Time : 09:50-10:15
Weilan Shao has completed her PhD from the University of Georgia and postdoctoral studies from University of Wisconsin. She has been a distinguished professor Jiangnan University, Nanjing normal University and Jiangsu University in China since 2000. Dr. Shao and her group have discovered a series of novel lignocellulases, the key aldehyde dehydrogenase for ethanol formation, the repressor/operator system coupling glycolysis and fermentation pathways, and the regulation mechanism of thermophilic ethanol fermentation. Dr. Shao also invents new techniques for industrial enzyme production and modification.
Many interesting and important tests are stopped at protein preparation from a target gene, and the industrial applications of lignocellulases are hindered by the high costs of enzyme production. A gene expression system of E. coli, pHsh, was constructed to enhance the production of recombinant enzymes by using the consensus promoter of heat shock (Hsh) proteins. The target gene in pHsh is under the control of an alternative sigma factor, σ32, and its expression is induced by a temperature up-shift. The presence of pHsh increases σ32 concentration in E. coli cells, which could strengthen the transcription of heat shock chaperons. Therefore, pHsh exhibits advantages in allowing healthful growth of recombinant cells, increasing production of target protein, and decreasing inclusion body formation. Based on pHsh system and mediated by a thermostable DNA ligase, in situ error-prone PCR technique has been developed to perform directed evolution in a step of PCR amplification and plate selection. Combining the techniques of pHsh expression, site-directed mutagenesis, and directed evolution, we are able to modify genes coding for lignocellulases with desired properties, e.g. the genes encoding extremely thermostable xylanase and laccase have been improved, and enzymes can be efficiently produced for biobleaching pulp at high temperatures. These advanced techniques will enhance the biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass for the industrial applications of bioenergy.
IIT Kharagpur, India
Time : 10:15-10:40
Rintu Banerjee, Ex-MNRE- Chair-Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur has created a niche of her own in the area of Biomass Deconstruction/Biofuel Production/Enzyme Technology. In the process of her innovative development, she was granted 8 Indian, 3 International (US, Japanese and Chinese) patents. She has published more than 150 papers in peer-reviewed national/international journals, guided 27 (17 continuing) Ph.Ds, 3 MS, 71 (3 continuing) M.Techs, 50 (2 continuing) B.Techs. She is the Editorial member of many Journals. She has written 24 book chapters and authored a book on “Environmental Biotechnology” published by Oxford University Press. She is recipient of various awards/honours given by both government/non-government organizations.
India the second most populated country after China is one of the largest emitter of green house gases (GHG). Transport sector of India accounts to 13 percent energy-related carbon-dioxide emissions. However, the ever-expanding transport sector can become more eco-friendly and sustainable by channelling the climate change agendas through cutting edge biotechnological research. The transport emissions and demand of gasoline can be reduced by adopting a sustainability approach, which includes long term goals such as increased use of public transport, higher production of biofuel, and improved vehicle efficiency. The current policy scenarios illustrates that in the next two decades India’s primary energy demand will double, from 750 Mtoe in 2011 to 1469 Mtoe in 2030. In this perspective, biofuel are emerging as the most promising alternative options to conventional fuels, as they can be produced locally, and can substitute diesel or gasoline to meet the transportation sector’s energy requirements. Specifically second generation biofuel could have positive implications for national energy security, local air quality and GHG mitigation, employment generation and rural development. The present work highlights the current status and potential of biofuel in India, identifies key challenges in achieving the country’s biofuel targets, and analyses their role in India’s long-term transport scenarios. IIT Kharagpur engaged in lignocellulosic biofuel production utilizing non-edible lignocellulosic biomass. The entire 2G biofuel production process is cost effective enzymatic venture where in-house enzymes are being produced from the new isolates from local habitat and thus, is devoid of any chemical use that makes the process eco-friendly and sustainable in nature with the integrated approach of bio-refinery having improved yield of bioethanol, biomethane and biobutanol.
- Banerjee R, Chintagunta AD, Ray S (2017) A cleaner and eco-friendly bioprocess for enhancing reducing sugar production from pineapple leaf waste. Journal of Cleaner Production http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.088.
- Avanthi A, Banerjee R (2016) A strategic laccase mediated lignin degradation of lignocellulosic feedstocks for ethanol production. Industrial Crops and Products 92, 174-185.
- Rajak RC, Banerjee R (2016) Enzyme mediated biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis: A biotechnological venture towards bioethanol production. RSC Advances, 6, 61301-61311.
- Gujjala LKS, Bandyopadhyay TK, Banerjee R (2016) Kinetic modelling of laccase mediated delignification of Lantana camara. Bioresource Technology, 212, 47-54.
- Rajak RC, Banerjee R (2015) Enzymatic delignification: An attempt for lignin degradation from lignocellulosic feedstock. RSC Advances, 5, 75281-75291.
Group Photo & Coffee Break @ Foyer 10:40-11:00